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Hydraulic Fracturing

Hydraulic fracturing is an oil and gas production technique used in tight geologic formations that involves horizontal directional drilling of wells as well as the use of water, sand and chemicals at high pressures to fracture rock and release hydrocarbons.


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What is Hydraulic Fracturing?

Hydraulic fracturing or, as it is commonly called, fracking, is a technique used for accessing natural gas and oil in tight geologic formations.  The process involves the horizontal directional drilling of wells in addition to the use of water, sand and chemicals at high pressures to fracture rock and release hydrocarbons.

The hydraulic fracturing process can be categorized into the follow four steps:

  1. A well is drilled vertically to the desired depth, then is turned at an angle and continues horizontally for several thousand feet into the formation believed to contain the trapped natural gas or oil. A mixture of water, sand, and chemicals is pumped into the well at high pressure in order to create fissures in the shale rock, which increases permeability and allows the hydrocarbons to escape.
  2. Natural gas or oil is released through the fissures and is drawn back up the well to the surface.
  3. Wastewater (also called “flowback water” or “produced water”) returns to the surface after the fracking process is completed.1
  4. The natural gas or oil is collected at the surface and is processed, refined, and shipped to the market.

Water and sand make up 98 to 99.5 percent of the fluid used in hydraulic fracturing. In addition, chemical additives are used but the exact formulation varies depending on the well.



Due to the decrease in the costs of fracking and advances in the production process, oil and natural gas that were previously unrecoverable are now accessible. This had led to an increase in supply of both oil and gas in the world market, and has meant greater energy independence for countries, such as the United States, that can now access an abundance of these resources.

The development of fracking has been controversial due to environmental concerns. The process typically requires 11 million litres of water per well, which is up to 100 times more than traditional extraction methods.1 This varies greatly depending on the geologic properties of the well.

Other environmental concerns include contamination of ground water, depletion of fresh water, and surface pollution in the drilling process. There are also concerns linking fracking to enhanced seismic activity.


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External resources


International Gas Union


International Group of Liquefied Natural Gas Importers

International Association for Natural Gas (CEDIGAZ)

Natural Gas Supply Association

World LPG Association

International Association of Oil and Gas Producers

Canadian Gas Association

American Gas Association

America’s Natural Gas Alliance

Interstate Natural Gas Association of America

Australian Gas Association

Natural & bio gas Vehicle Association



Gas Infrastructure Europe

The Africa Gas Association

The South African Pipeline Gas Association

Asia Pacific Natural Gas Vehicles Association


Unconventional Natural Gas and Oil Institute (UNGI)

Sustainable Gas Institute

Canadian Energy Research Institute

The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies – Natural Gas Programme

Gas Technology Institute

Penn State University – Institute for Natural Gas Research

European Gas Research Group


Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering

Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry

Oil and Gas Journal


Geological Society of America

Baker Institute – Geopolitics of Natural Gas

Forbes – On Natural Gas Fracking Proposals

Pen State University – Economic Issues 

Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia – Economic Implications of Natural Gas Drilling in the Marcellus Shale Region

Resources for the Future – The Economics of Shale Gas Development


David Suzuki Foundation

National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT)


PLATTS McGraw Hill Financial 

Interfax Global Energy


Werner, Vink, Watt, & Jagals


Physicians for Social Responsibility

National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT)

University of Maryland


Worldwatch Institute

Environmental Leader


Aspen Institute – Forum on Global Energy, Economy, and Security